A condition in which the parathyroid gland (one of four pea-sized organs found on the thyroid) makes too much parathyroid hormone. This causes a loss of calcium from the bones and an increased level of calcium in the blood. Symptoms include bone pain and kidney problems.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of parathyroid hormone (or pth) triggering responses that increase blood calcium. It is characterized by hypercalcemia and bone resorption, eventually leading to bone diseases. Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid hyperplasia or parathyroid neoplasms. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is increased pth secretion in response to hypocalcemia, usually caused by chronic kidney diseases.
A disorder characterized by an increase in production of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. This results in hypercalcemia (abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood).
Abnormally increased activity of the parathyroid glands, which may be primary or secondary; primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with neoplasia or hyperplasia; excess of parathyroid hormone leads to alteration in function of bone, renal tubules, and gastrointestinal mucosa.
Deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the parathyroid gland.
Hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands resulting in the overproduction of parathyroid hormone. It may be primary or secondary; primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia, parathyroid carcinoma, and multiple endocrine neoplasia. It is associated with hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia. Signs and symptoms include weakness, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, constipation, depression, bone pain, osteoporosis, cystic bone lesions, and kidney stones. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is caused by the chronic stimulation of the parathyroid glands in patients with chronic renal failure, rickets, and malabsorption syndromes.
Most people have four pea-sized glands, called parathyroid glands, on the thyroid gland in the neck. Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands are completely different. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (pth), which helps your body keep the right balance of calcium and phosphorous. If your parathyroid glands make too much or too little hormone, it disrupts this balance. If they secrete extra pth, you have hyperparathyroidism, and your blood calcium rises. In many cases, a benign tumor on a parathyroid gland makes it overactive. Or, the extra hormones can come from enlarged parathyroid glands. Very rarely, the cause is cancer.if you do not have enough pth, you have hypoparathyroidism. Your blood will have too little calcium and too much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. nih: national institute of diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases
Pathological processes of the parathyroid glands. They usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone that regulates the balance of calcium; phosphorus; and magnesium in the body.
What: hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism: a condition due to an increase in the secretion of the parathyroids, causing generalized osteitis fibrosa cystica, elevated serum calcium, decreased serum phosphorus, and increased excretion of both calcium and phosphorus. Why: several rheumatological disorders are associated with hyperpara- thyroidism. First, hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis (which may mimic hyperparathyroidism with renal stone formation and colic) have an increased incidence in patients with hyperparathyroidism. Second, patients with primary hyperparathyroidism show an increased incidence of chondrocalcinosis with episodes of calcium pyrophosphate crystal induced synovitis. Approximately 25% of patients with hyperparathyroidism will show radiographic evidence of calcification of articular cartilage and joint capsules. Finally, there can be a synovial and cartilaginous lesion ("osteogenic synovitis") in patients with hyperparathyroidism which may mimic other primary rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In osteogenic synovitis there is softening and collapse of subchondral bone. Eventually the cartilage overlying this area erodes and is replaced by an irregular fibrocartilage. Eventually the articular surface of the joint is destroyed and secondary degenerative arthritis may develop. Refs: 1) zvaifler, nj; reefe, we and black, rl: articular manifestations in primary hyperparathyroidism. Arthritis rheum 5:237, 1962. 2) scott, jt; dixon, asj and bywaters, egl: association of hyperuricemia and gout with hyperparathyroidism. Br med j 1:1070, 1964. 3) bywaters, egl and scott, jt : joint lesions of hyperparathyroidism. Ann rheum dis 22:171-87, 1963.